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Two localizations and one tracking session were performed for 11 patients (one patient was not localizable). The overall accuracy of the system in localization relative to x-ray was 1.5 ± 0.9 mm (p<0.001). In the eight minute tracking sessions, two of the 11 patients showed displacements of more than 1 cm in any direction. Displacements were in the longitudinal and vertical directions and lasted for over one minute. No significant displacement was detected in the lateral direction. Rotational analysis showed rotations (in pitch) of more than 10 degrees were often correlated to these same translational events. Fiducial registration errors showed differences corresponding to these same events that indicate a measure of organ deformation. Real-time deformation change was less than 1 mm RMS over the course of 8 minutes.
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